Discorso diretto ed indiretto in inglese
In questa sezione ci occupiamo di due modi diversi per riferire ciò che dice una persona: il discorso diretto e il discorso indiretto. Cosa sono? Facciamo un esempio. Discorso diretto: “Mamma, sto imparando l’inglese!”, dice Marco.
Discorso indiretto: Marco dice alla mamma che sta imparando l’inglese. E fin qui abbiamo parlato in italiano; cosa succede in inglese?
Nel discorso diretto si citano tra virgolette le parole pronunciate da una persona:
* He says: “Mommy, I am learning English.”
Nel discorso indiretto le parole sono riferite, ma non riportate fedelmente.
* He says he is learning English.
Discorso indiretto al presente
Se il verbo che introduce la frase riferita è al tempo presente, i tempi dei verbi nel discorso indiretto non subiscono alcuna trasformazione:
She says: “I speak French”.
She says she speaks French.
He says: “I am going to school”.
He says he is going to school.
She says: “I drank some milk”.
She says she drank some milk.
He says: “I will work with my father”.
He says he will work with his father.
Discorso indiretto al passato
Quando il verbo che introduce la frase riferita è al tempo passato, nel discorso indiretto cambiano i tempi verbali, gli aggettivi dimostrativi, gli avverbi di tempo e di luogo.
TEMPI VERBALI CHE VARIANO
Tom said to Sue: “I have a new pc.”
Tom said to Sue he had a new pc.
He said: “I am playing football”.
He said he was playing football.
She said: “James has just left.”
She said James had just left.
Present perfect continuous
Luke said: “I have been talking for hours”.
Past perfect continuous
Luke said he had been talking for hours.
He said: “I ate an apple”.
He said he had eaten an apple.
He said: “I will pass this exam”.
He said he would pass the exam.
Mary said: “I will be sleeping”.
Present conditional continuous
Mary said she would be sleeping.
The policeman said: “Stop your car.”
The policeman said to stop my car.
TEMPI VERBALI CHE NON VARIANO
Nel discorso indiretto alcuni tempi e modi verbali restano invariati, ossia past continuous, il past perfect continuous, past conditional, past perfect, present conditional.
Ecco un esempio:
* “I was playing the piano when the phone rang”, said Sam.
* Sam said he was playing the piano when the phone rang.
* He asked: “Can you come with me?”
* He asked if I could come with him.
* My boyfriend asked me: “Will you dance with me?”
* My boyfriend asked if I would dance with him.
AGGETTIVI DIMOSTRATIVI, AVVERBI DI LUOGO E DI TEMPO
the previous day
the following day
the following week/month/year
the last week/month/year
* He said: “I am fixing this car.”
* He said he was fixing that car.
Verbi introduttivi del discorso indiretto
I verbi più comuni per introdurre il discorso indiretto sono to say e to tell.
Altri verbi sono:
To point out
To beg chiedere (formale)
To urge sollecitare
In caso di short answers, nel discorso diretto viene utilizzato lo stesso ausiliare della domanda.
* Tom said: “Do you like surfing the net?” I said: “Yes, I do.”
* He asked me if I liked surfing the net and I answered I did.
* Mary said: “Are you going to school?” I said: “Yes, I am.”
* She asked if I was going to school and I answered I was.
Esercizio 1 Facile
Trasforma le seguenti frasi in discorso indiretto
1. “I like this car.”
2. “Kate is busy now.”
Her mother said…
3. “I have been speaking German a lot today.”
He told me…
4. “I met Sandy yesterday.”
5. “It will snow tomorrow.”
6. “I watched an interesting movie last week.”
Alex told us…
7. “Sarah will come next week.”
He told me…
8. “ We’ll move into the new house soon.”
My mother said…
9. “John phoned half an hour ago.”
Mark told us…
10. “Your exercise is full of mistakes.”
The teacher told me…
Esercizio 2 Medio
1. “You must be at home by 8pm” said my father.
2. The doctor said: “You should take a month’s rest.”
The doctor said…
3. Jessica said: “I am sorry, but I can’t be there in time.”
4. Sam told me: “You must do it again.”
5. “Are you going to spend the whole night working?” asked my brother.
6. “My brother will teach you to speak German” said my girlfriend.
7. He said: “May I make a phone call?”
8. My mother said: “Dinner’s ready.”
9. “I can’t remember when I went to Pisa” said my old friend.
My old friend…
10. “Kate might know the answer” said Mary.